The production of coal-use residues is an inevitable consequence of the utilisation of coal. In many countries landfill provides a simple method of disposing of most coal-use residues. However, increased environmental concerns, stricter regulations, and higher disposal costs may in future make dumping unacceptable. In many countries there is now a greater emphasis on utilisation of waste materials, rather than disposal. A wide range of utilisation options have been demonstrated for various coal-use residues, including applications in agriculture, building and structural materials, industrial materials, and material recovery. A number of commercial applications are well documented and have been carried out for many years. Research into new applications for residues in progress at many centres around the world. This report provides basic information on over two hundred different applications and processes which utilise coal-use residues, from more than twenty countries. Applications range from high-volume, low-technology uses, to low-volume, but highly specialised applications. Commercial processes and applications are listed together with those which are at an experimental or developmental stage, in work carried out by private or governmental research organisations. Process and manufacturing descriptions are given for each application, and data are provided on the types of coal-use residues utilised, other materials incorporated, and properties of manufactured products.
Title: Applications for coal-use residues, IEACR/50
Author(s): Lee Clarke
Publication Date: 01/11/1992