This report reviews the origin of trace elements in coal and their partitioning through coal-fired combustion and gasification processes, and downstream pollution control equipment. The importance of coal utilisation as a source of trace element emissions to the atmosphere is evaluated. Deposition of trace elements onto soils and waters may upset the balance of ecosystems, and some elements may be toxic to plants and animals. Coal combustion is the major global source of mercury and selenium emissions from human activities and is also an important source of antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, vanadium, and zinc. Limits controlling atmospheric . . .